Sudomotor dysfunction independently predicts incident cardiovascular-renal events and all-cause death in type 2 diabetes: the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation register

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019 Aug 1;34(8):1320-1328. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy154.

Abstract

Background: Early detection and risk factor control prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Evaluation of peripheral autonomic dysfunction may detect incident cardiovascular-renal events in type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: SUDOSCAN, a non-invasive tool, provides an age-adjusted electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) composite score incorporating hands/feet ESC measurements, with a score ≤53 indicating sudomotor dysfunction. A consecutive cohort of 2833 Chinese adults underwent structured diabetes assessment in 2012-13; 2028 participants without preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CKD were monitored for incident cardiovascular-renal events until 2015.

Results: In this prospective cohort {mean age 57.0 [standard deviation (SD) 10.0] years; median T2D duration 7.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 3.0-13.0] years; 56.1% men; 72.5% never-smokers; baseline ESC composite score 60.7 (SD 14.5)}, 163 (8.0%) and 25 (1.2%) participants developed incident CKD and CVD, respectively, after 2.3 years of follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) per 1-unit decrease in the ESC composite score for incident CKD, CVD and all-cause death were 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.04], 1.04 (1.00-1.07) and 1.04 (1.00-1.08), respectively. Compared with participants with an ESC composite score >53, those with a score ≤53 had an aHR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.23) for CKD and 3.11 (95% CI 1.27-7.62) for CVD, independent of common risk markers. When added to clinical variables (sex and duration of diabetes), the ESC composite score improved discrimination of all outcomes with appropriate reclassification of CKD risk.

Conclusions: A low ESC composite score independently predicts incident cardiovascular-renal events and death in T2D, which may improve the screening strategy for early intervention.

Keywords: autonomic dysfunction; chronic kidney disease; cohort study; mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Area Under Curve
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Neuropathies / complications
  • Diabetic Neuropathies / diagnosis*
  • Disease Progression
  • Electric Conductivity
  • Electrochemistry
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Kidney / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality*
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin / pathology*