Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) had become a therapeutic modality in patients with primary tumors, locally recurrent as well as oligometastasis involving the lung. Some modalities of SBRT require fiducial marker (FM) for dynamic tumor tracking. Previous studies have focused on evaluating bronchoscopic-guided FM placement for peripheral lung nodules. We describe the safety and feasibility of placing FM using real-time convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) for SBRT in patients with centrally located hilar/mediastinal masses or lymph nodes.
Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients who were referred to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program for FM placement to pursue SBRT.
Results: Thirty-seven patients who underwent real-time CP-EBUS were included. Patients had a median age of 71 years [interquartile range (IQR), 59.5 to 80.5]. The median size of the lesion was 2.2 cm (IQR, 1.4 to 3.3 cm). The median distance from the central airway was 2.4 cm (IQR, 0 to 3.4 cm). A total of 51 FMs (median of 1 per patient) were deployed in 37 patients. At the time of SBRT planning, 46 (90.2%) were confirmed radiologically in 32 patients. Patients with unsuccessful fiducial deployment (n=5) underwent a second procedure using the same technique. Of those, 3 patients had a successful fiducial placement via bronchoscopy, 1 patient required FM placement by percutaneous computed tomography-guided approach and 1 patient required FM placement through EUS by gastroenterology.
Conclusion: CP-EBUS-guided FM placement for patients with malignant lymph nodes and central parenchymal lung lesions appears to be safe and feasible.