Season of birth: A predictor of ADHD symptoms in early midlife

Psychiatry Res. 2018 Sep;267:243-248. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.056. Epub 2018 Jun 6.


Objective: In this longitudinal study, we applied linear regression analyses to examine season of birth as related to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early midlife.

Method: We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife.

Findings: The findings indicate that, as compared with participants who were born in the summer, those who were born in the spring (Beta = 0.34; t-statistic = 3.59; p < 0.001) had significantly more ADHD symptoms. In addition, exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in adolescence significantly intensified (p < 0.01) the association between season of birth and ADHD symptoms in early midlife.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that exposure to greater maternal maladaptive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking, may result in a greater vulnerability to other environmental risk factors, such as season of birth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / etiology*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Correlation of Data
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Internal-External Control
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Maternal Behavior
  • Middle Aged
  • New York
  • Parturition*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Seasons*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution