Background: Hematuria is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but has rarely been examined as a risk factor for CKD progression. We explored whether individuals with hematuria had worse outcomes compared to those without hematuria in the CRIC Study.
Methods: Participants were a racially and ethnically diverse group of adults (21 to 74 years), with moderate CKD. Presence of hematuria (positive dipstick) from a single urine sample was the primary predictor. Outcomes included a 50% or greater reduction in eGFR from baseline, ESRD, and death, over a median follow-up of 7.3 years, analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models. Net reclassification indices (NRI) and C statistics were calculated to evaluate their predictive performance.
Results: Hematuria was observed in 1145 (29%) of a total of 3272 participants at baseline. Individuals with hematuria were more likely to be Hispanic (22% vs. 9.5%, respectively), have diabetes (56% vs. 48%), lower mean eGFR (40.2 vs. 45.3 ml/min/1.73 m2), and higher levels of urinary albumin > 1.0 g/day (36% vs. 10%). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, individuals with hematuria had a greater risk for all outcomes during the first 2 years of follow-up: Halving of eGFR or ESRD (HR Year 1: 1.68, Year 2: 1.36), ESRD (Year 1: 1.71, Year 2: 1.39) and death (Year 1:1.92, Year 2: 1.77), and these associations were attenuated, thereafter. Based on NRIs and C-statistics, no clear improvement in the ability to improve prediction of study outcomes was observed when hematuria was included in multivariable models.
Conclusion: In a large adult cohort with CKD, hematuria was associated with a significantly higher risk of CKD progression and death in the first 2 years of follow-up but did not improve risk prediction.
Keywords: CKD; CKD progression; ESRD; Epidemiology; Hematuria; Mortality; Risk factors.