Pharmacokinetics and Comprehensive Analysis of the Tissue Distribution of Eravacycline in Rabbits

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Aug 27;62(9):e00275-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00275-18. Print 2018 Sep.


Eravacycline (7-fluoro-9-pyrrolidinoacetamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline or TP-434) is a novel, fully synthetic broad-spectrum fluorocycline with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, anaerobes, and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae We characterized the plasma pharmacokinetics of eravacycline and conducted a comprehensive analysis of the eravacycline tissue distribution in rabbits after multiple-day dosing. For single-dose pharmacokinetic analysis, eravacycline was administered to New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 mg/kg of body weight intravenously (i.v.) once a day (QD) (n = 20). For multidose pharmacokinetic analysis, eravacycline was administered at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg i.v. QD (n = 20) for 6 days. Eravacycline concentrations in plasma and tissues were analyzed by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Mean areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) following a single eravacycline dose ranged from 5.39 μg · h/ml to 183.53 μg · h/ml. Within the multidose study, mean AUCs ranged from 2.53 μg · h/ml to 29.89 μg · h/ml. AUCs correlated linearly within the dosage range (r = 0.97; P = 0.0001). In the cardiopulmonary system, the concentrations were the highest in the lung, followed by the heart > pulmonary alveolar macrophages > bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; for the intra-abdominal system, the concentrations were the highest in bile, followed by the liver > gallbladder > spleen > pancreas; for the renal system, the concentrations were the highest in urine, followed by those in the renal cortex > renal medulla; for the musculoskeletal tissues, the concentrations were the highest in muscle psoas, followed by those in the bone marrow > adipose tissue; for the central nervous system, the concentrations were the highest in cerebrum, followed by those in the aqueous humor > cerebrospinal fluid > choroid > vitreous. The prostate and seminal vesicles demonstrated relatively high mean concentrations. The plasma pharmacokinetic profile of 0.5 to 4 mg/kg in NZW rabbits yields an exposure comparable to that in humans (1 or 2 mg/kg every 12 h) and demonstrates target tissue concentrations in most sites.

Keywords: eravacycline; pharmacokinetics; rabbits; tissue distribution.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Area Under Curve
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / drug effects
  • Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods
  • Rabbits
  • Tetracyclines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Tetracyclines / pharmacology*
  • Tissue Distribution / physiology*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Tetracyclines
  • eravacycline