Dalbavancin is a new semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with improved antimicrobial activity against various gram-positive pathogens. It demonstrates an extensive plasma half-life which permits outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy with weekly intervals and might therefore be an excellent treatment alternative for patients requiring prolonged antimicrobial therapy. The present study investigated dalbavancin monotherapy in an experimental implant-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis model. A clinical MRSA isolate and a Kirschner-wire were inserted into the proximal tibia of anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Four weeks after infection 34 animals were treated over 4 weeks with either dalbavancin (20 mg/kg loading-dose; 10 mg/kg daily), vancomycin (50 mg/kg twice daily) or left untreated. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment dose tibial bones and Kirschner-wires were harvested for microbiological examination. Based on quantitative bacterial cultures of osseous tissue, dalbavancin was as effective as vancomycin and both were superior to no treatment. No emergence of an induced glycopeptide-/lipoglycopeptide- resistance was observed after a treatment period of four weeks with either dalbavancin or vancomycin. In conclusion, monotherapy with dalbavancin was shown to be as effective as vancomycin for treatment of experimental implant-related MRSA osteomyelitis in rats, but both antimicrobials demonstrated only limited efficacy. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of dalbavancin for the treatment of periprosthetic S. aureus infections.