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, 20 (1), 7-11

Factors Associated With Postoperative Infection After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy


Factors Associated With Postoperative Infection After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Win Shun Lai et al. Rev Urol.


Numerous studies have investigated risk factors for the development of postoperative infection in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients. Herein, we describe our meta-analysis of the risk factors for the prediction of post-PCNL infectious complications. We searched electronic databases using a combination of the terms percutaneous nephrolithotomy, risk factors, infection, and sepsis. The primary outcome was post-PCNL infection as defined by fever >38°C or sepsis as defined by the Sepsis Consensus Definition Committee. Risk factors for infection in each study were identified and included for analysis if present in at least two studies. We used quantitative effect sizes in odds ratio to assess each endpoint. After application of criteria, 24 studies were found, of which 12 were prospective and 12 were retrospective. Of the prospective studies, preoperative urine culture, renal pelvis culture, stone culture, number of access points, hydronephrosis, perioperative blood transfusion, and struvite stone composition were found to be significantly associated with postoperative infection. Of the 12 retrospective studies, preoperative urine culture, stone cultures, number of access points, blood transfusion, stone size, and staghorn formation were associated with infection. Preoperative urine culture, stone culture, number of access points, and need for blood transfusion were consistently found to be significant factors. This indicates that the presence of bacteria in the urine/stone preoperatively as well as the amount of trauma the kidney sustains during the procedure are major predictors of postoperative infection.

Keywords: Lithotripsy; Nephrolithiasis; Percutaneous nephrostomy; Urinary tract infection.

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