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, 133 (4), 1241-1249

Development and Validation of a Formula Based on Maxillary Sinus Measurements as a Tool for Sex Estimation: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study

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Development and Validation of a Formula Based on Maxillary Sinus Measurements as a Tool for Sex Estimation: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study

Amanda Farias Gomes et al. Int J Legal Med.

Abstract

Background: As sex estimation is an important step to delineate the biological profile, the development of tools employing anatomical structures which may maintain their integrity even after extreme events, such as the maxillary sinus, become useful for forensic identification. Thus, the aim in the present study was to develop and validate a formula for sex estimation through measurements in the maxillary sinuses in a Brazilian population, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans.

Material and methods: Linear and volumetric measurements in the maxillary sinus were performed bilaterally in 94 CBCT scans from 45 males (mean age 25.2 ± 0.79) and 49 females (mean age 23.7 ± 0.50). The OnDemand 3D software was employed for linear measurements (height, length and width of, and the largest distance between the right and left maxillary sinuses), while the ITK-SNAP 3.0 segmentation software was used to acquire the volume. The data obtained was applied to a mathematical model for sex estimation. To validate the developed formula, another sample composed of 60 CBCT images of Brazilian individuals was tested.

Results: Overall, maxillary sinuses' measurements were significantly higher in males, without statistically significant differences between the right and left sides within each group. The most dimorphic measurement was the height, with an accuracy of 77.7% regarding sex estimation. The formula created lead to a sex estimation of 87.8% for females and 80% for males, with an overall accuracy of 84%. When the formula validity was tested in another sample, it showed an accuracy of 82.4%.

Conclusion: The formula developed through measurements in the maxillary sinus using CBCT scans showed an accuracy of 84% for sex estimation and can be applied as a complementary method for human identification in the Brazilian population.

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography; Forensic anthropology; Forensic dentistry; Maxillary sinus; Sex characteristics.

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