Large-Scale Assessment of Extractables and Leachables in Single-Use Bags for Biomanufacturing

Anal Chem. 2018 Aug 7;90(15):9006-9015. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01208. Epub 2018 Jul 13.


Single-use technologies (SUTs) are widely used during biopharmaceutical manufacture as disposable bioreactors or media and buffer storage bags. Despite their advantages, the risk of release of extractable and leachable (E&Ls) substances is considered an important drawback in adopting disposables in the biomanufacturing process. E&Ls may detrimentally affect cell viability or productivity or may persist during purification and present a risk to the patient if remaining in the final drug product. In this study, 34 plastic films from single-use bags (SUBs) for cell cultivation were extracted with selected solvents that represent reasonable worst-case conditions for most typical biomanufacturing applications. SUBs were incubated at small-scale under accelerated-aging conditions that represented standard operational conditions of use. Leachables analysis was performed following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for analyte preconcentration and removal of matrix interference. Resulting extracts were characterized by GC-headspace for volatiles, high resolution GC-Orbitrap-MS/MS for semivolatiles, high resolution LC-Orbitrap-MS/MS for nonvolatiles, and ICP-MS for trace elemental analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis of the analytical data revealed significant correlations between the type and concentration of compounds and bags features including brand, manufacturing date and polymer type. The analytical data demonstrates that, over recent years, the nature of E&Ls has been altered due to the implementation of manufacturing changes and new types of polymers and may change further with the future advent of regulations that will limit or ban the use of certain raw materials and additives. The broad E&L database generated herein facilitates toxicological assessments from a biomanufacturing standpoint and provides practical guidelines for confident determination of E&Ls to enable screening and elimination of nonsatisfactory films for single use bioprocessing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products / chemistry
  • Chromatography, Liquid / instrumentation
  • Chromatography, Liquid / methods
  • Drug Contamination* / prevention & control
  • Drug Packaging / instrumentation
  • Drug Packaging / methods*
  • Equipment Design
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / instrumentation
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Humans
  • Liquid Phase Microextraction / instrumentation
  • Liquid Phase Microextraction / methods
  • Mass Spectrometry / instrumentation
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Plastics / analysis*
  • Solvents / analysis*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / instrumentation
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis*


  • Biological Products
  • Plastics
  • Solvents
  • Volatile Organic Compounds