Biochemical control systems for small molecule damage in plants

Plant Signal Behav. 2018;13(5):e1477906. doi: 10.1080/15592324.2018.1477906. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Abstract

As a system, plant metabolism is far from perfect: small molecules (metabolites, cofactors, coenzymes, and inorganic molecules) are frequently damaged by unwanted enzymatic or spontaneous reactions. Here, we discuss the emerging principles in small molecule damage biology. We propose that plants evolved at least three distinct systems to control small molecule damage: (i) repair, which returns a damaged molecule to its original state; (ii) scavenging, which converts reactive molecules to harmless products; and (iii) steering, in which the possible formation of a damaged molecule is suppressed. We illustrate the concept of small molecule damage control in plants by describing specific examples for each of these three categories. We highlight interesting insights that we expect future research will provide on those systems, and we discuss promising strategies to discover new small molecule damage-control systems in plants.

Keywords: Abiotic stress; enzyme promiscuity; glyoxalase system; metabolic intermediates; molecule damage; reactive carbonyl species; reactive oxygen species; repair system; scavenging systems; small molecules; steering systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Plants / metabolism*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / physiology

Substances

  • Reactive Oxygen Species

Grant support

This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grants FOR 1186, MA2379/11–2, and EXC 1028 to VGM.