There is a growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Tajikistan. This paper presents factors associated with linkage to HIV care among people aged 15 years and older in Tajikistan. This retrospective cross-sectional study used the Tajikistan Ministry of Health HIV registry data from patients diagnosed with HIV at age 15 years or older from 2000 to 2016. Chi squared tests and logistic regression models tested factors associated with linkage to care. A multivariable logistic regression model examined effect modifications. While linkage to care had an overall increase from 2000 to 2016, the odds of linkage were lower among certain sub-groups including among people in Dushanbe, men, people engaging in sex work, injection drug users, and older people. Regional differences exist with linkage to care, occurring least frequently in Dushanbe. While access to care and quality of care have increased significantly over time, findings suggest that linkage to care is low, especially in the capital city where many services are provided. Evaluation focusing on acceptability of HIV services should be undertaken to understand why certain people do not link with services. Additional research about the types of barriers to linking with HIV care is needed to increase linkage to HIV care.
Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus; Tajikistan; care; gender.