The plasma-protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is implicated in phenotypic switching of tumor-associated macrophages, regulating cytokine production and phagocytotic activity, thereby promoting vessel normalization and antitumor immune responses. To assess the therapeutic effect of HRG gene delivery on CNS tumors, we used adenovirus-encoded HRG to treat mouse intracranial GL261 glioma. Delivery of Ad5-HRG to the tumor site resulted in a significant reduction in glioma growth, associated with increased vessel perfusion and increased CD45+ leukocyte and CD8+ T-cell accumulation in the tumor. Antibody-mediated neutralization of colony-stimulating factor-1 suppressed the effects of HRG on CD45+ and CD8+ infiltration. Using a novel protein interaction-decoding technology, TRICEPS-based ligand receptor capture (LRC), we identified Stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) as an interacting partner of HRG on the surface of inflammatory cells in vitro and colocalization of HRG and STC2 in gliomas. HRG reduced the suppressive effects of STC2 on monocyte CD14+ differentiation and STC2-regulated immune response pathways. In consequence, Ad5-HRG-treated gliomas displayed decreased numbers of IL35+ Treg cells, providing a mechanistic rationale for the reduction in GL261 growth in response to Ad5-HRG delivery. We conclude that HRG suppresses glioma growth by modulating tumor inflammation through monocyte infiltration and differentiation. Moreover, HRG acts to balance the regulatory effects of its partner, STC2, on inflammation and innate and/or acquired immunity. HRG gene delivery therefore offers a potential therapeutic strategy to control antitumor immunity. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(9); 1961-72. ©2018 AACR.
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.