Objective: Despite the importance of type I interferon (IFN-I) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, the mechanisms of IFN-I production have not been fully elucidated. Recognition of nucleic acids by DNA sensors induces IFN-I and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), but the involvement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) in SLE remains unclear. We studied the role of the cGAS-STING pathway in the IFN-I-producing cascade driven by SLE serum.
Methods: We collected sera from patients with SLE (n=64), patients with other autoimmune diseases (n=31) and healthy controls (n=35), and assayed them using a cell-based reporter system that enables highly sensitive detection of IFN-I and ISG-inducing activity. We used Toll-like receptor-specific reporter cells and reporter cells harbouring knockouts of cGAS, STING and IFNAR2 to evaluate signalling pathway-dependent ISG induction.
Results: IFN-I bioactivity and ISG-inducing activities of serum were higher in patients with SLE than in patients with other autoimmune diseases or healthy controls. ISG-inducing activity of SLE sera was significantly reduced in STING-knockout reporter cells, and STING-dependent ISG-inducing activity correlated with disease activity. Double-stranded DNA levels were elevated in SLE. Apoptosis-derived membrane vesicles (AdMVs) from SLE sera had high ISG-inducing activity, which was diminished in cGAS-knockout or STING-knockout reporter cells.
Conclusions: AdMVs in SLE serum induce IFN-I production through activation of the cGAS-STING pathway. Thus, blockade of the cGAS-STING axis represents a promising therapeutic target for SLE. Moreover, our cell-based reporter system may be useful for stratifying patients with SLE with high ISG-inducing activity.
Keywords: autoimmune diseases; cytokines; inflammation; systemic lupus erythematosus.
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