Management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) consists of careful observation or immunomodulatory treatment. Observational studies suggest a lower risk for chronic ITP in children after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. In this multicenter randomized trial, children aged 3 months to 16 years with newly diagnosed ITP, platelet counts 20 × 109/L or less, and mild to moderate bleeding were randomly assigned to receive either a single infusion of 0.8 g/kg IVIg or careful observation. Primary outcome was development of chronic ITP, which at the time of study initiation was defined as a platelet count lower than 150 × 109/L after 6 months. Two hundred six children were allocated to receive IVIg (n = 102) or careful observation (n = 104). Chronic ITP occurred in 18.6% of the patients in the IVIg group and 28.9% in the observation group (relative risk [RR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.08). Platelet counts lower than 100 × 109/L at 12 months (current definition of chronic ITP) were observed in 10% of children in the IVIg group and 12% in the observation group (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.38-1.84). Complete response rates in the first 3 months were significantly higher in the IVIg group. Immunoglobulin G Fc receptor IIb genetic variations were associated with early complete response in both groups. Grade 4 to 5 bleeding occurred in 9% of the patients in the observation group vs 1% in the IVIg group. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR 1563.
© 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.