Background: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT), according to diabetes mellitus and admission glucose level (AGL).
Methods: We systematically reviewed previous studies in PubMed that reported outcomes of MT in AIS patients and their relationships with diabetes mellitus or AGL. We used functional independence (modified Rankin score ≤ 2 at 3 months) as the primary end point.
Results: Data from 12,653 patients in 47 articles that evaluated the effect of diabetes mellitus or AGL on outcomes after MT were included. Compared with patients without a history of diabetes mellitus, patients with a diabetes mellitus history had significantly lower odds of functional independence in both the unadjusted meta-analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.75) and the multivariable analysis (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.33-0.71). Similarly, higher AGL was associated with an unfavorable functional outcome in the unadjusted meta-analysis (pooled effect size - 0.38; 95% CI - 0.45 to - 0.31), and the adjusted OR (95% CI) per 1 mmol/L increase in AGL was 0.87 (0.83-0.92) for functional independence according to the combined multivariable results. Recanalization rate and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were neither related to AGL nor different in patients with or without diabetes mellitus.
Conclusions: The present study confirms that a history of diabetes mellitus and high AGL are associated with unfavorable functional outcomes at 3 months after MT in AIS patients. However, the causal relationship between hyperglycemia and poor prognosis remains undetermined, and further investigations are required to ascertain whether AIS patients receiving MT could benefit from intensive glucose control.
Keywords: Acute ischemic stroke; Admission glucose; Diabetes mellitus; Mechanical thrombectomy; Meta-analysis.