Despite considerable efforts toward vaccine development over decades, there is no available effective vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of P. vivax (PvTRAP) is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito's salivary gland and vertebrate's hepatocyte; hence, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. In the current investigation, the role of antibodies and cellular immune responses induced by purified recombinant PvTRAP (rPvTRAP) delivered in three adjuvants, naloxone (NLX), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides ODN1826 (CpG-ODN), and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), alone and in combination was evaluated in immunized C57BL/6 mice. The highest level and the avidity of anti-PvTRAP IgG (mean OD490nm 2.55), IgG2b (mean OD490nm 1.68), and IgG2c (mean OD490nm 1.466) were identified in the group received rPvTRA/NLX-MPL-CpG. This group also presented the highest IgG2c/IgG1 (2.58) and IgG2b/IgG1 (2.95) ratio when compared to all other groups, and among the adjuvant groups, the lowest IgG2c/IgG1 (1.86) and IgG2b/IgG1 (2.25) ratio was observed in mice receiving rPvTRAP/NLX. Mice receiving rPvTRAP/adjuvants induced significantly the higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), low level of detectable IL-10, and no detectable IL-4 production. The present result revealed that PvTRAP is immunogenic and its administration with CPG, MPL, and NLX in C57BL/6 mice induced Th1 immune response. Besides, the rPvTRAP delivery in the mixed formulation of those adjuvants had more potential to increase the level, avidity, and persistence of anti-TRAP antibodies. However, it warrants further assessment to test the blocking activity of the produced antibodies in immunized mice with different adjuvant formulations.
Keywords: Adjuvant; Malaria; Plasmodium vivax; TRAP; Vaccine.