Cells sense myriad signals during G1, and a rapid response to prevent cell cycle entry is of crucial importance for proper development and adaptation. Cln3, the most upstream G1 cyclin in budding yeast, is an extremely short-lived protein subject to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. On the other hand, nuclear accumulation of Cln3 depends on chaperones that are also important for its degradation. However, how these processes are intertwined to control G1-cyclin fate is not well understood. Here, we show that Cln3 undergoes a challenging ubiquitination step required for both degradation and full activation. Segregase Cdc48/p97 prevents degradation of ubiquitinated Cln3, and concurrently stimulates its ER release and nuclear accumulation to trigger Start. Cdc48/p97 phosphorylation at conserved Cdk-target sites is important for recruitment of specific cofactors and, in both yeast and mammalian cells, to attain proper G1-cyclin levels and activity. Cdk-dependent modulation of Cdc48 would subjugate G1 cyclins to fast and reversible state switching, thus arresting cells promptly in G1 at developmental or environmental checkpoints, but also resuming G1 progression immediately after proliferative signals reappear.
Keywords: Cdc48; Cln3; ER release; Start; cell cycle.
© 2018 The Authors.