A Toddler With Treatment-Resistant Iron Deficiency Anemia

Pediatrics. 2018 Jul;142(1):e20172971. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2971.


A 19-month-old girl with a history of asthma and atopic dermatitis presented to her pediatrician because of parental concerns of pallor and fatigue. On dietary history, it was discovered that she was a picky eater and consumed 26 oz of homogenous milk daily. Her physical examination was unremarkable aside from pallor, and both her height and weight plotted between the 50th and 75th percentile for age. Therefore, she was investigated for iron deficiency anemia and indeed her blood work was consistent. Despite appropriate iron supplementation and dietary milk restriction, there was no improvement in her hemoglobin or iron studies. Our expert panel examines the case and offers a differential diagnosis for a child presenting with treatment-resistant iron deficiency anemia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / etiology*
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / therapy
  • Celiac Disease / complications
  • Celiac Disease / diagnosis*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diet, Gluten-Free / methods
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Hemoglobins / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Iron / therapeutic use*
  • Scurvy / complications*


  • Hemoglobins
  • Iron