Effectiveness of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir and Predictors of Treatment Failure in Members with Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study in a Medicaid Population

J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018 Jul;24(7):591-597. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2018.24.7.591.


Background: The primary goal of therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is eradication of HCV ribonucleic acid, which is predicted by achievement of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was approved by the FDA in 2014 and 2015 as a once-daily regimen for the treatment of HCV genotype 1 and HCV genotypes 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Although its efficacy has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, there is an unmet need for real-world effectiveness data and studies that assess the association of rates of SVR12 with specific clinical and demographic factors in the Medicaid population.

Objectives: To (a) evaluate the effectiveness of HCV genotype 1 treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir as measured by the rate of SVR12 overall and within the subgroups of 8-, 12-, and 24-week regimens and (b) identify predictors of treatment failure in the Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) population.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the rate of SVR12 among 796 MassHealth Primary Care Clinician and fee-for-service plan members who completed treatment with at least one 8-, 12-, or 24-week treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for HCV genotype 1 infection between October 10, 2014, and November 1, 2016. The following variables were evaluated to identify predictors of treatment failure: sex, history of treatment failure, cirrhosis, substance use disorder, human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, and concomitant use of interacting medications. The proportion of members who achieved SVR12 was calculated for the entire study population and stratified by treatment regimen. Chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of members who achieved SVR12, stratified by clinical and demographic variables.

Results: SVR12 was achieved in 95% (756/796) of members. High proportions of members who received 8 weeks of treatment or 12 weeks of treatment without concomitant ribavirin achieved SVR12 (96.0% [285/297] and 95.7% [382/399], respectively). A slightly lower proportion of members who received 12 weeks of treatment with concomitant ribavirin or 24 weeks of treatment achieved SVR12 (89.9% [62/69] and 87.1% [27/31], respectively). The proportion of members who achieved SVR12 with each treatment regimen was consistent when stratified by clinical and demographic variables. None of the included variables were found to be associated with statistically significant differences in odds of treatment failure.

Conclusions: In the Medicaid population of 1 state, treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was associated with a high rate of SVR12. The outcomes of treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in the Medicaid population are comparable with outcomes observed in other patient populations.

Disclosures: No outside funding supported this study. The authors have no financial disclosures. A poster of this manuscript was presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy 2017 Annual Meeting, March 27-30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / methods
  • Female
  • Fluorenes / therapeutic use*
  • Genotype
  • Hepacivirus / drug effects*
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepacivirus / isolation & purification
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medicaid
  • Middle Aged
  • RNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ribavirin / therapeutic use
  • Sofosbuvir
  • Sustained Virologic Response
  • Treatment Failure
  • United States
  • Uridine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives*
  • Uridine Monophosphate / therapeutic use
  • Viral Load / drug effects


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Drug Combinations
  • Fluorenes
  • RNA, Viral
  • ledipasvir, sofosbuvir drug combination
  • Ribavirin
  • Uridine Monophosphate
  • Sofosbuvir