Background: Data on adverse drug events (ADEs) observed at the population level provide important evidence regarding the safety of a pharmaceutical product in real-world settings. Recent patterns in serious and fatal ADE reporting have not been documented.
Objective: To assess recent patterns in serious and fatal ADE reports in the United States.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the publicly available 2006-2014 FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database. Non-U.S. reports, reports from clinical trials, and reports with missing outcome data were excluded. The annual numbers of ADEs with reported outcome of death, disability, and other serious outcomes were determined. Types (direct, manufacturer expedited, or manufacturer periodic) and sources (consumer, health professional, or other) of these serious ADE reports were also identified. The distribution of serious ADE reports by patient age groups (< 18, 18-44, 45-64, and ≥ 65 years) was determined. Drugs listed as primary suspects in serious ADEs (death, disability, and other serious outcomes) were identified and ranked. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patterns in serious or fatal ADE reporting.
Results: From 2006 to 2014, the number of serious ADEs reported to the FDA increased 2-fold. A total of 902,323 serious outcomes were reported over the 9-year study period: 244,408 deaths, 72,141 disabilities, and 585,774 other serious outcomes. The relative percentage of reports of deaths was highest during 2012 (32.4%). The percentage of reports of disability was highest during 2006 (12.1%). Overall, the "other serious outcomes" category accounted for almost 65% of serious ADEs reports. Expedited reports from drug manufacturers were most common (about 72%) of the serious ADEs with available data on report type. Health professionals (47.3%) were the most common source of report followed by consumers (36.1%) and other sources (16.6%). A disproportionately high number of reported ADEs was among patients aged 45-64 years (40%) and ≥ 65 years (32.6%). Antineoplastic drugs were more frequently reported with deaths. Three antidepressant drugs were among the top 10 drugs reported with disability. During 2006-2014, there were 38 drugs with more than 1,000 reports of serious ADEs in a given year: 2 drugs currently withdrawn from the market (rofecoxib and parecoxib), 10 drugs with an FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) program, 13 biologic or specialty drugs, and 14 others.
Conclusions: An overall increase in the trend of the number of serious ADE reports was observed from 2006 to 2014. Drugs with a REMS program and biologic and specialty drugs were involved in a significant number of reported serious ADEs. Data on reporting patterns can guide surveillance and pharmacoepidemiological studies to understand the public health burden of serious ADEs.
Disclosures: No outside funding supported this study. Hansen has received consulting fees from and has provided expert testimony for Daichii Sankyo and Takeda. The other authors have nothing to disclose.