Long-term yogurt consumption and risk of incident hypertension in adults

J Hypertens. 2018 Aug;36(8):1671-1679. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001737.


Objective: To evaluate the relation between yogurt consumption as well as cheese, milk, and total dairy, and high blood pressure (HBP) in two Nurses' Health Study cohorts (NHS, n = 69 298), NHS II (n = 84 368) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, n = 30 512).

Methods: NHS, NHS II, and HPFS participants were followed for incident HBP for up to 30, 20, and 24 years, respectively. Hazard ratios were calculated using time-dependent multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Pooled risk estimates were derived from fixed effects meta-analyses.

Results: Participants consuming at least five servings per week (vs. <1 serving per month) of yogurt in NHS, NHS II, and HPFS had 19% (95% CI 0.75-0.87), 17% (95% CI 0.77-0.90), and 6% (95% CI 0.83-1.07) lower HBP risks, respectively. In pooled analyses of these cohorts, higher yogurt consumption was linked with 16% (95% CI 0.80-0.88) lower HBP risk; higher total dairy (3 to <6 vs. <0.5 servings/day), milk (2 to <6/day vs. <4/week) and cheese (1 to 4/day vs. <1/week) were associated with 16% (95% CI 0.81-0.87), 12% (95% CI 0.86-0.90), and 6% (95% CI 0.90-0.97) lower HBP risks, respectively. After controlling for BMI as a possible causal intermediate, total dairy, yogurt, milk, and cheese were associated with 13, 10, 8, and 8% lower HBP risks, respectively. The combination of higher yogurt intake and higher DASH ('Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension') diet scores was associated with 30% (95% CI 0.66-0.75) lower HBP risk compared with lower levels of both factors.

Conclusion: Higher total dairy intake, especially in the form of yogurt, was associated with lower risk of incident HBP in middle-aged and older adult men and women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Cheese
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk
  • Protective Factors
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Yogurt*