Conditions Affecting Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes) Basidiome Quality, Morphogenesis, and Biodegradation of Wood By-products in Argentina

Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018;20(5):495-506. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2018026249.

Abstract

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) with the medicinal higher Basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum was studied as a strategy to use pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) and poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood chips and sawdust. Fruiting bodies were produced and the value of the biotransformed substrate was assessed. The highest mushroom yield (63 g dry weight per kilogram of dry substrate) was obtained with poplar sawdust and wood chips. Immersion of the bioreactors was a simple watering method that obtained suitable yields. Two morphological types were induced using 2 different incandescent light intensities. High light irradiation induced the highest valued mushroom morphology (as a whole product). Time course study of substrate biodegradation and mycelial growth dynamics indicated that the trophophase lasted 20 days and presented laccase activity of 0.01-0.03 units · g-1. The activity at idiophase was 10 times higher. Aqueous and alkali extracts, as well as carbohydrase enzyme profile activity, revealed differences in the properties of the residual substrate; some related to the substrate source are considered to be of concern for further use of this pretreated biomass. In view of the results obtained, we propose use of SSF of pine and poplar with G. lucidum to profitably recycle softwood by-products from the timber industry.

MeSH terms

  • Argentina
  • Biomass
  • Bioreactors / microbiology
  • Fermentation
  • Fruiting Bodies, Fungal / metabolism*
  • Laccase / analysis
  • Light
  • Lignin / metabolism
  • Morphogenesis
  • Mycelium / growth & development
  • Mycelium / metabolism
  • Pinus / metabolism
  • Populus / metabolism
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Reishi / metabolism*
  • Reishi / radiation effects
  • Wood / metabolism*

Substances

  • lignocellulose
  • Lignin
  • Laccase