Background: Few studies have explored the association between a previous caesarean section (CS) and adverse perinatal outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy, especially in women who underwent a non-indicated CS in their first delivery. We designed this study to compare the perinatal outcomes of a subsequent pregnancy in women who underwent spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) or CS in their first delivery.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women who underwent singleton deliveries at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016. Data on the perinatal outcomes of all the women were extracted from the medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assessed the association between CS in the first delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy.
Results: CS delivery in the subsequent pregnancy was more likely for women who underwent CS in their first birth than for women with previous SVD (97.3% versus 13.2%). CS in the first birth was also associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy, especially in women who underwent a non-indicated CS. Adverse perinatal outcomes included pregnancy-induced hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.20, 1.59-3.05], gestational diabetes mellitus (1.82, 1.57-2.11), gestational anaemia (1.27, 1.05-1.55), placenta previa (3.18, 2.15-4.71), placenta accreta (2.75, 1.75-4.31), and polyhydramnios (2.60, 1.57-4.31) in the mother and preterm delivery (1.37, 1.06-1.78), low birth weight (3.78, 2.07-6.90), macrosomia (5.04, 3.95-6.44), and neonatal jaundice (1.72, 1.39-2.14) in the baby.
Conclusions: CS in the first delivery markedly increases the risk of repeated CS and maternal-fetal complications in the subsequent pregnancy, especially in women with a non-indicated CS.
Keywords: Caesarean delivery; Cohort; Pregnancy outcomes; Subsequent pregnancy.