An overview of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

JAAPA. 2018 Jul;31(7):1-5. doi: 10.1097/01.JAA.0000534979.69236.e7.


Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) are on the rise in the United States, especially among men who have sex with men, HIV-positive or other immunocompromised patients, and women with a history of cervical, vaginal, or vulvar cancer. Strong evidence supports the human papillomavirus as the causative factor in anal dysplasia; reducing the risk of HPV infection can reduce rates of ASCC. High-risk patients should be screened for AIN, but no universal screening guidelines exist, and more studies are needed to develop a national protocol for screening and management of patients with AIN.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anal Canal / pathology*
  • Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis*
  • Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control
  • United States