Concomitant Associations of Healthy Food Intake and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Coronary Artery Calcium

Am J Cardiol. 2018 Aug 15;122(4):560-564. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.04.059. Epub 2018 May 11.


Conflicting findings remain regarding associations between lifestyle behaviors and coronary artery calcium (CAC). We investigated concomitant associations of healthy food intake and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with CAC. Data from 706 men and women 50 to 64 years old from the Swedish SCAPIS pilot trial were analyzed. A CAC score was calculated using the Agatston method. A Healthy Food Index (HFI) was established using data from a web-based food frequency questionnaire. CRF was assessed from a bike exercise test. Regression analyses were performed with occurrence of CAC (dichotomous) and level of CAC score in patients with CAC (continuous) as outcomes. 58% had 0 CAC score. HFI was significantly associated with having no CAC (standardized coefficient β = 0.18, p <0.001) but not with level of CAC score (β = -0.09, p = 0.34). CRF showed no significant association with having no CAC (β = -0.08, p = 0.12) or with the level of CAC score (β = -0.04, p = 0.64). However, there was an interaction between HFI and CRF (β = -0.23, p = 0.02); for increasing levels of CRF there was stronger negative association between HFI and level of CAC score, reaching β = -0.48, p = 0.045 for the highest CRF level. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of a healthy food intake in combination with higher CRF to counteract CAC development.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness*
  • Coronary Angiography / methods*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnosis*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology
  • Coronary Artery Disease / metabolism
  • Coronary Vessels / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Vessels / metabolism*
  • Eating / physiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Vascular Calcification / diagnosis*
  • Vascular Calcification / epidemiology
  • Vascular Calcification / metabolism


  • Calcium