Background/aims: As a natural antioxidant, verbascoside (VB) is proved to be a promising method for the treatment of oxidative-stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of VB on glioblastoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion as well as the mechanism involving signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1).
Methods: U87 cells were assigned to different treatments. The MTT assay was used to test cell proliferation, flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, and a Transwell assay was used for cell migration and invasion. We analyzed the glioblastoma tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Western blot analysis was employed to determine the protein expression of related genes.
Results: Glioblastoma cells exhibited decreased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and increased apoptosis when treated with VB or TMZ. Western blot analysis revealed elevated SHP-1 expression and reduced phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 expression in glioblastoma cells treated with VB compared with controls. Correspondingly, in a xenograft mouse model treated with VB, glioblastoma tumor volume and growth were decreased. Glioblastoma xenograft tumors treated with VB showed elevated SHP-1, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expression and reduced p-STAT3, Bcl-2, survivin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression. siRNA-SHP-1 inhibited the VB effects on glioblastoma.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that VB inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion while promoting apoptosis via SHP-1 activation and inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Glioblastoma; Invasion; Migration; Proliferation; Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1; Verbascoside.
© 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.