Dietary sodium intake and its relationship to adiposity in young black and white adults: The African-PREDICT study

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2018 Jul 1;20(8):1193-1202. doi: 10.1111/jch.13329. Online ahead of print.


Obesity and salt intake are both established factors contributing to cardiovascular disease development. Recently, studies found a controversial positive relationship between dietary salt and obesity. Therefore, the authors investigated whether obesity-related measures are associated with 24-hour urinary sodium in a healthy biethnic population. The study included 761 adults (20-30 years) with complete 24-hour urinary sodium, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measurements. In single regression analyses all obesity-related measures related positively with 24-hour urinary sodium (P ≤ .008). However, with multivariate adjustments for energy intake, accelerometery, age, sex, black and white ethnicity, and other covariates, only body surface area (BSA) remained independently associated with 24-hour urinary sodium (R2 = 0.72, β = .05, P = .039). To conclude, we found a consistent and robust positive relationship between BSA and estimated salt intake - but not with traditional obesity measures such as body mass index (BMI). Further studies are needed to investigate body surface area and potentially, skin area, in salt handling.

Keywords: body surface area; dietary sodium; energy expenditure; energy intake; obesity; salt.