Genetic profile of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia revealed by targeted next-generation sequencing

Prenat Diagn. 2018 Aug;38(9):654-663. doi: 10.1002/pd.5327. Epub 2018 Jul 19.


Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is characterized by a defective closure of the diaphragm occurring as an isolated defect in 60% of cases. Lung size, liver herniation, and pulmonary circulation are major prognostic indices. Isolated CDH genetics is heterogeneous and poorly understood. Whether genetic lesions are also outcome determinants has never been explored.

Objectives: To identify isolated CDH genetic causes, to fine map the mutational burden, and to search for a correlation between the genotype and the disease severity and outcome.

Methods: Targeted massively parallel sequencing of 143 human and mouse CDH causative and candidate genes in a cohort of 120 fetuses with isolated CDH and detailed outcome measures.

Results: Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants were identified in 10% of the cohort. These variants affect both known CDH causative genes, namely, ZFPM2, GATA4, and NR2F2, and new genes, namely, TBX1, TBX5, GATA5, and PBX1. In addition, mutation burden analysis identified LBR, CTBP2, NSD1, MMP14, MYOD1, and EYA1 as candidate genes with enrichment in rare but predicted deleterious variants. No obvious correlation between the genotype and the phenotype or short-term outcome has been found.

Conclusion: Targeted resequencing identifies a genetic cause in 10% of isolated CDH and identifies new candidate genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Female
  • Genetic Profile*
  • Genotype
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital / genetics*
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital / pathology
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing*
  • Humans
  • Lung / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Pregnancy
  • Prognosis