The T-win® technology is an innovative investigational approach designed to activate the body's endogenous anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs) to target regulatory as well as malignant cells. Anti-Tregs are naturally occurring T cells that can directly react against regulatory immune cells because they recognize proteins that these targets express, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase, arginase, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). The T-win® technology is characterized by therapeutic vaccination with long peptide epitopes derived from these antigens and therefore offers a novel way to target genetically stable cells with regular human leukocyte antigen expression in the tumor microenvironment. The T-win® technology thus also represents a novel way to attract pro-inflammatory cells to the tumor microenvironment where they can directly affect immune inhibitory pathways, potentially altering tolerance to tumor antigens. The modification of an immune regulatory environment into a pro-inflammatory milieu potentiates effective anti-tumor T cell responses. Many regulatory immune cells may be reverted into effector cells given the right stimulus. Because T-win® technology is based on the immune-modulatory function of the vaccines, the vaccines activate both CD4 and CD8 anti-Tregs. Of importance, in clinical trials, vaccinations against IDO or PD-L1 to potentiate anti-Tregs have so far proved to be safe, with minimal toxicity.
Keywords: Anti-Tregs; Arginase; IDO; Immune-modulating vaccines; PD-L1; T-win technology.