Odorous Emission Reduction From a Waste Landfill With an Optimal Protection System Based on Fuzzy Logic

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 May;26(15):14755-14765. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-2514-0. Epub 2018 Jul 2.


Effective landfill management and operation require an accurate evaluation of the occurrence and extent of odour emission events, which are among the main causes of resident complaints and concerns, in particular in densely urbanised areas. This paper proposes a fuzzy optimal protection system (FOPS) based on fuzzy logic to manage odour production from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The case study is a MSW landfill in an old quarry site located 6 km north-west of Naples city centre (Italy). The aim is to reduce the odour nuisance in the area surrounding the landfill where there are several sensitive receptors. FOPS is based on logical relationships between local atmospheric dynamics, number and intensity of odour pollution events detected by certain fixed receptors and odour emission rate via an optimal fuzzy approach. Such system allows to start, in real time, established mitigation actions required to further reduce the odorous emissions from the landfill itself (e.g. spraying of perfumed substances and activation of extraction wells), especially when weather conditions might not be favourable and cause by causing a higher odour perception. The fuzzy system was coupled with the air pollutant transport software CALPUFF to simulate the odour dispersion in the considered area taking into account both different odour emission rates and local weather conditions. FOPS results show that this approach can be very useful as, by measuring the odour concentrations, a significant reduction of the odour exceedances over the thresholds fixed, to minimise the olfactory harassment, was observed in the whole area studied.

Keywords: Decision support system; Early warning system; Fuzzy logic; Odour; Solid waste odour management.

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Pollution
  • Fuzzy Logic
  • Italy
  • Odorants / analysis*
  • Refuse Disposal
  • Smell
  • Solid Waste / analysis*
  • Waste Disposal Facilities
  • Weather


  • Solid Waste