Red (635 nm), Near-Infrared (808 nm) and Violet-Blue (405 nm) Photobiomodulation Potentiality on Human Osteoblasts and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Morphological and Molecular In Vitro Study

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 3;19(7):1946. doi: 10.3390/ijms19071946.


Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used for bone regenerative purposes in different fields of medicine and dentistry, but contradictory results demand a skeptical look for its potential benefits. This in vitro study compared PBM potentiality by red (635 ± 5 nm) or near-infrared (NIR, 808 ± 10 nm) diode lasers and violet-blue (405 ± 5 nm) light-emitting diode operating in a continuous wave with a 0.4 J/cm² energy density, on human osteoblast and mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) viability, proliferation, adhesion and osteogenic differentiation. PBM treatments did not alter viability (PI/Syto16 and MTS assays). Confocal immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analyses indicated that red PBM (i) on both cell types increased vinculin-rich clusters, osteogenic markers expression (Runx-2, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin) and mineralized bone-like nodule structure deposition and (ii) on hMSCs induced stress fiber formation and upregulated the expression of proliferation marker Ki67. Interestingly, osteoblast responses to red light were mediated by Akt signaling activation, which seems to positively modulate reactive oxygen species levels. Violet-blue light-irradiated cells behaved essentially as untreated ones and NIR irradiated ones displayed modifications of cytoskeleton assembly, Runx-2 expression and mineralization pattern. Although within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study may suggest PBM with 635 nm laser as potential effective option for promoting/improving bone regeneration.

Keywords: Akt signaling; Runx-2; bone regeneration; diode laser; light emitting diode (LED); low level laser therapy (LLLT); mesenchymal stromal cells; osteoblasts; ostepontin; photobiomodulation (PBM).

MeSH terms

  • Calcification, Physiologic / radiation effects
  • Cell Adhesion / radiation effects
  • Cell Differentiation / radiation effects
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation / radiation effects
  • Cell Survival / radiation effects
  • Humans
  • Lasers, Semiconductor
  • Light*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / radiation effects*
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism*
  • Osteoblasts / radiation effects*
  • Osteogenesis / radiation effects