Improved General and Oral Health in Diabetic Patients by an Okinawan-Based Nordic Diet: A Pilot Study

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 3;19(7):1949. doi: 10.3390/ijms19071949.

Abstract

Periodontal disease, periodontitis as well as the preceding gingivitis, has been associated with both obesity and diabetes. Studies have shown that diet changes can lead to a lower incidence of such inflammation. The aim of the present case series over four weeks was to study the effects on medical and dental conditions in patients with type 2 diabetes of the consumption of the Okinawan-based Nordic Diet (OBND®). Medical and dental examinations were performed to estimate the general health and gingivitis/periodontitis. Serum cytokine levels were assessed using Luminex technology. Eight of ten study participants completed the study. All participants lost weight (p = 0.012). Six out of seven that were treated with insulin could reduce their insulin intake after two weeks with OBND®. The reduction was about 16 units which corresponds to a 34% relative reduction compared to the starting point (range 15–63%). Fasting blood glucose values fell (p = 0.035). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.05), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.05) were also reduced. Bleeding on probing changed from ~28% before any dietary changes to ~13% after two weeks with OBND® (p = 0.01). The reduction in gingival bleeding was as substantial as might be expected from one session of professional tooth cleaning. Markers of inflammation were also reduced. The OBND® thus showed significant promise in alleviating the impact of diabetes on dental as well as general health.

Keywords: bleeding on probing; clinical study; cytokines; diet; metabolic disorder; oral health.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Health*
  • Pilot Projects

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human