Hormonal regulation of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1; MUC9) in the rhesus macaque cervix

J Med Primatol. 2018 Dec;47(6):362-370. doi: 10.1111/jmp.12357. Epub 2018 Jul 4.


Background: Macaques are outstanding animal models for the development of new contraceptives. In women, progestin-only contraceptives often fail to block ovulation and are believed to act by altering cervix physiology. Herein, we assessed oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) in the macaque cervix as a marker for progestogen action.

Materials: Rhesus macaques were treated with estradiol (E2 ), E2 plus progesterone (P), and E2 plus levonorgestrel (LNG), a contraceptive progestin. Samples consisted of archived blocks of midcervix mucosa (epithelium and lamina propria) and fresh epithelial cells collected non-invasively by cytobrush. OVGP1 was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and localized by immunocytochemistry.

Results: OVGP1 transcript was maximal after E2 and reduced after treatment with E2 + P (P < .05). LNG also reduced OVGP1 expression (P < .05). OVGP1-specific staining localized to epithelial cells, and transcript was quantifiable in cytobrush collected samples.

Conclusions: OVGP1 expression in cytobrush samples of macaque cervix provides a non-invasive indicator of contraceptive progestin action.

Keywords: cervix; cytobrush; hormonal regulation; oviductal glycoprotein; progestogen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cervix Uteri / drug effects
  • Cervix Uteri / metabolism*
  • Contraceptive Agents, Female / pharmacology
  • Estradiol / pharmacology*
  • Estrogens / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Levonorgestrel / pharmacology*
  • Macaca mulatta / metabolism*
  • Progesterone / pharmacology*
  • Progestins / pharmacology


  • Contraceptive Agents, Female
  • Estrogens
  • Glycoproteins
  • Progestins
  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol
  • Levonorgestrel

Associated data

  • GENBANK/NM_002557.3
  • GENBANK/XM_015137107.1
  • GENBANK/NM_001278457.1
  • GENBANK/NM_001193579.1