Apixaban is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in the liver and intestine, undergoes direct intestinal excretion, and is a substrate to permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters. We examined the drug interactions between cyclosporine and tacrolimus (combined inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp, and BCRP) with apixaban in 12 healthy adult male volunteers. Apixaban 10 mg was administered orally alone, in combination with 100 mg cyclosporine or 5 mg tacrolimus. Co-administration with cyclosporine resulted in increase in apixaban maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC(0-tlast) ) with associated geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of 143% (112, 183) and 120% (97, 148), respectively. Co-administration with tacrolimus resulted in reduction in apixaban Cmax and AUC(0-tlast) with associated GMRs (90% CI) of 87% (69, 112) and 78% (63, 97), respectively. The observed changes in apixaban exposure margins with cyclosporine or tacrolimus are within the range of the historical clinical development program, therefore, apixaban dose adjustments are not warranted.
© 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.