Purpose: To investigate the additive effects of orthokeratology (OK) and atropine 0.01% ophthalmic solution, both of which are effective procedures to slow axial elongation in children with myopia.
Study design: Prospective randomized clinical trial.
Methods: Japanese children aged 8-12 years with a spherical equivalent refractive error of - 1.00 to - 6.00 diopters were included. A total of 41 participants who had been wearing the OK lenses successfully for 3 months were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either the combination of OK and atropine 0.01% ophthalmic solution (combination group) or monotherapy with OK (monotherapy group). Subjects in the combination group started to use atropine 0.01% ophthalmic solution once nightly from 3 months after the start of OK. Axial length was measured every 3 months using non-contact laser interferometry (IOLMaster), and the axial length measurement at month 3 of OK therapy was used as the baseline value in both groups. The increase in axial length over 1 year was compared between the two groups.
Results: A total of 40 consecutive subjects (20 subjects in the combination group and 20 in the monotherapy group) were followed for 1 year. The increase in axial length over 1 year was 0.09 ± 0.12 mm in the combination group and 0.19 ± 0.15 mm in the monotherapy group (P = 0.0356, unpaired t test).
Conclusion: During the 1-year follow-up, the combination of OK and atropine 0.01% ophthalmic solution was more effective in slowing axial elongation than OK monotherapy in children with myopia.
Keywords: Additive effects; Atropine 0.01% ophthalmic solution; Axial length; Myopia; Orthokeratology.