Modulation of intestinal microbiota, control of nitrogen products and inflammation by pre/probiotics in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review

Nutr Hosp. 2018 Apr 27;35(3):722-730. doi: 10.20960/nh.1642.


Dysbiosis may favor the occurrence of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been suggested that the intake of pre/probiotics may control the progression of chronic kidney disease. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of pre/probiotic intake on the intestinal microbiota, control of nitrogen products, oxidative stress, and inflammation in CKD patients.The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, and Science Direct. After careful evaluation by the reviewers, ten potentially relevant articles were selected for this study. Based on previous studies, intake of prebiotics appears to have the following effects: increased bifidobacteria and lactobacillus counts; reduced formation of uremic toxin, p-cresol, and its serum concentrations; improved lipid profiles; reduced systemic inflammatory state and concentrations of oxidative stress markers. Similarly, consumption of probiotics can reduce blood urea and serum phosphate concentrations. Furthermore, an increase in fecal volume and intestinal Bifidobacteriumand a reduction in p-cresol serum and blood urea concentrations were observed in response to symbiotic intake. These results suggest that consumption of pre/probiotics may modulate the intestinal microbiota, and promote the growth and metabolism of anaerobic bacteria by decreasing the production of uremic solutes, further causing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in CKD patients.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Dysbiosis
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Nitrogen / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Prebiotics*
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / microbiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy*


  • Prebiotics
  • Nitrogen