Pyrophosphate, citrate and magnesium, inhibitors of hydroxyapatite crystal growth, were studied using a seeded crystal growth system of constant composition at pH 5.80, 6.60 and 7.40. With this technique, crystal growth was studied at constant supersaturation at different pH values without the induction of other calcium phosphate phases. One inhibitor unit (that concentration of material that results in a reduction of 50 per cent in the growth rate from control) was calculated using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Pyrophosphate and citrate increased inhibitor activity with decreasing pH, whereas magnesium increased inhibitor activity with increasing pH. These data suggest that, at the urinary concentrations of these inhibitors, pyrophosphate is the most potent inhibitor, citrate less, and magnesium least. Pooled urine collections were studied using the same system and were found to have decreased inhibitor activity as pH decreased. This suggests that other modulators of hydroxyapatite, either promoters or inhibitors, are active in this system at the pH values studied.