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The Prehistoric Peopling of Southeast Asia

Hugh McColl  1 Fernando Racimo  1 Lasse Vinner  1 Fabrice Demeter  1   2 Takashi Gakuhari  3   4 J Víctor Moreno-Mayar  1 George van Driem  5   6 Uffe Gram Wilken  1 Andaine Seguin-Orlando  1   7 Constanza de la Fuente Castro  1 Sally Wasef  8 Rasmi Shoocongdej  9 Viengkeo Souksavatdy  10 Thongsa Sayavongkhamdy  10 Mohd Mokhtar Saidin  11 Morten E Allentoft  1 Takehiro Sato  12 Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas  13 Farhang A Aghakhanian  14 Thorfinn Korneliussen  1 Ana Prohaska  15 Ashot Margaryan  1   16 Peter de Barros Damgaard  1 Supannee Kaewsutthi  17 Patcharee Lertrit  17 Thi Mai Huong Nguyen  18 Hsiao-Chun Hung  19 Thi Minh Tran  18 Huu Nghia Truong  18 Giang Hai Nguyen  18 Shaiful Shahidan  11 Ketut Wiradnyana  20 Hiromi Matsumae  4 Nobuo Shigehara  21 Minoru Yoneda  22 Hajime Ishida  23 Tadayuki Masuyama  24 Yasuhiro Yamada  25 Atsushi Tajima  12 Hiroki Shibata  26 Atsushi Toyoda  27 Tsunehiko Hanihara  4 Shigeki Nakagome  28 Thibaut Deviese  29 Anne-Marie Bacon  30 Philippe Duringer  31   32 Jean-Luc Ponche  33 Laura Shackelford  34 Elise Patole-Edoumba  35 Anh Tuan Nguyen  18 Bérénice Bellina-Pryce  36 Jean-Christophe Galipaud  37 Rebecca Kinaston  38   39 Hallie Buckley  38 Christophe Pottier  40 Simon Rasmussen  41 Tom Higham  29 Robert A Foley  42 Marta Mirazón Lahr  42 Ludovic Orlando  1   7 Martin Sikora  1 Maude E Phipps  14 Hiroki Oota  4 Charles Higham  43   44 David M Lambert  8 Eske Willerslev  45   15   46
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The Prehistoric Peopling of Southeast Asia

Hugh McColl et al. Science.

Abstract

The human occupation history of Southeast Asia (SEA) remains heavily debated. Current evidence suggests that SEA was occupied by Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers until ~4000 years ago, when farming economies developed and expanded, restricting foraging groups to remote habitats. Some argue that agricultural development was indigenous; others favor the "two-layer" hypothesis that posits a southward expansion of farmers giving rise to present-day Southeast Asian genetic diversity. By sequencing 26 ancient human genomes (25 from SEA, 1 Japanese Jōmon), we show that neither interpretation fits the complexity of Southeast Asian history: Both Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers and East Asian farmers contributed to current Southeast Asian diversity, with further migrations affecting island SEA and Vietnam. Our results help resolve one of the long-standing controversies in Southeast Asian prehistory.

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