Background: Glenoid version angles are measured to objectively follow changes related to glenohumeral dysplasia in the setting of brachial plexus birth palsy. Measuring glenoid version on cross-sectional imaging was initially described by Friedman et al. in 1992. Recent literature for non-dysplastic shoulders advocates time-consuming reconstructions and reformations for an accurate assessment of glenoid version.
Objective: To compare Friedman's original method for measuring glenoid version to a novel technique we developed ("modified Friedman") with the reference standard of true axial reformations.
Materials and methods: With institutional review board approval, we retrospectively examined 30 normal and dysplastic shoulders obtained from magnetic resonance imaging examinations of 30 patients with an established diagnosis of brachial plexus birth palsy between January 2012 and September 2017. Four pediatric radiologists performed glenoid version measurements using Friedman's method, the modified Friedman method and a previously described true axial reformation method. The modified Friedman technique better accounts for scapular positioning by selecting a reference point related to the acromion-scapular body interface. Inter-rater reliability and inter-method agreement were assessed using intraclass correlation, paired t-tests and mixed linear model analysis. Equivalence tests between methods were performed per reader.
Results: Glenoid version measurements were significantly different when comparing Friedman's method to true axial reformations in normal (-10.8±5.7° [mean±standard deviation] vs. -8.8±5.3°; P≤0.001) and dysplastic shoulders (-34.6±17.7° vs. -28.1±17.5°; P≤0.001). Glenoid version measurements were not significantly different when comparing the modified Friedman's method to true axial reformations in normal (-6.3±5.8° vs. -8.8±5.3°; P=0.06) and dysplastic shoulders (-29.0±18.3° vs. -28.1±17.5°; P=0.06). Friedman's method was not equivalent to true axial reformations for measurements in dysplastic shoulders for all readers (P=0.68, 0.81, 0.86, 0.99); the modified Friedman method was equivalent to of true axial reformations for measurements in dysplastic shoulders for 3 of 4 readers (P≤0.001, P≤0.001, P≤0.001, P=0.10).
Conclusion: In glenohumeral dysplasia, the modified Friedman method and post-processed true axial reformations provide statistically similar and reproducible values. We propose that our modified Friedman technique can be performed in lieu of post-processed true axial reformations to generate glenoid version measurements.
Keywords: Brachial plexus birth palsy; Children; Glenohumeral dysplasia; Glenoid version; Magnetic resonance imaging; Shoulder.