The past few years have witnessed rapid advances in the immunotherapies for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CIMAvax-EGF is a therapeutic vaccine against lung cancer independently developed by Cuba. It can exert its anti-tumor effect by forming epidermal growth factor (EGF) antibodies to block the binding of EGF to EGF receptor. So far stage both phases Ⅱ and Ⅲ trials have proved its effectiveness and long-term safety,and phases Ⅲ and Ⅳ trials are underway. A deeper understanding of the role of CIMAvax-EGF in NSCLC will accelerate the application of immunotherapy. This article summarizes the recent advances of CIMAvax-EGF R&D and its application in treating NSCLC.