Background: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has been proposed as a method to reduce blood loss during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Impaired sinonasal visualization due to mucosal bleeding may be burdensome in cases of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with high-grade inflammatory disease, suggesting a role for TIVA in that disease subgroup.
Methods: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted of adults undergoing ESS at a tertiary medical center. Patients considered for inclusion had high-grade CRS defined as either sinonasal polyposis or a preoperative Lund-Mackay score of ≥12. Subjects were randomized to receive either TIVA or inhaled anesthesia (IA) during ESS. The primary outcome measure was intraoperative visibility as rated by 3 blinded reviewers utilizing the 10-point Wormald Surgical Field Grading Scale. Secondary outcomes included operative blood loss, complications, and change in quality of life evaluated by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22).
Results: A total of 72 patients were randomized into TIVA (n = 37) and IA (n = 35) study arms. Aggregate median (interquartile range) Wormald scores across all reviewers demonstrated a more favorable visual field with TIVA compared to IA (3.5 [2.4-3.9] vs IA 4.1[3.0-5.8], p = 0.0089). There was significantly less blood loss in the TIVA group compared to the IA group (200 mL [100-450] vs 300 mL [200-500], p = 0.046). Baseline patient characteristics were comparable between cohorts with no significant postoperative complications. No significant changes were detected between postoperative SNOT-22 scores at 3 months (p = 0.278) and at 6 months (p = 0.396) following ESS.
Conclusion: TIVA contributes to improved intraoperative visualization and decreased blood loss in patients undergoing ESS for high-grade inflammatory sinus disease.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02578862.
Keywords: Lund-Mackay; Sino-Nasal Outcome Test; chronic rhinosinusitis; endoscopic sinus surgery; intraoperative visualization; nasal polyposis; total intravenous anesthesia.
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