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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2018 Oct;31(10):1151-1157.
doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2018.05.003. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

The Impact of the Left Ventricle on Right Ventricular Function and Clinical Outcomes in Infants With Single-Right Ventricle Anomalies Up to 14 Months of Age

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

The Impact of the Left Ventricle on Right Ventricular Function and Clinical Outcomes in Infants With Single-Right Ventricle Anomalies Up to 14 Months of Age

Meryl S Cohen et al. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Children with single-right ventricle anomalies such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) have left ventricles of variable size and function. The impact of the left ventricle on the performance of the right ventricle and on survival remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether left ventricular (LV) size and function influence right ventricular (RV) function and clinical outcome after staged palliation for single-right ventricle anomalies.

Methods: In the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial, echocardiography-derived measures of LV size and function were compared with measures of RV systolic and diastolic function, tricuspid regurgitation, and outcomes (death and/or heart transplantation) at baseline (preoperatively), early after Norwood palliation, before stage 2 palliation, and at 14 months of age.

Results: Of the 522 subjects who met the study inclusion criteria, 381 (73%) had measurable left ventricles. The HLHS subtype of aortic atresia/mitral atresia was significantly less likely to have a measurable left ventricle (41%) compared with the other HLHS subtypes: aortic stenosis/mitral stenosis (100%), aortic atresia/mitral stenosis (96%), and those without HLHS (83%). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly larger, while diastolic indices suggested better diastolic properties in those subjects with no left ventricles compared with those with measurable left ventricles. However, RV ejection fraction was not different on the basis of LV size and function after staged palliation. Moreover, there was no difference in transplantation-free survival to Norwood discharge, through the interstage period, or at 14 months of age between those subjects who had measurable left ventricles compared with those who did not.

Conclusions: LV size varies by anatomic subtype in infants with single-right ventricle anomalies. Although indices of RV size and diastolic function were influenced by the presence of a left ventricle, there was no difference in RV systolic function or transplantation-free survival on the basis of LV measures.

Keywords: Aortic atresia; Echocardiography; Hypoplastic left heart syndrome; Mitral atresia; Norwood procedure; Single right ventricle.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: None.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
HLHS (A) with absent left ventricular cavity; (B) with a markedly hypoplastic left ventricle (LV) with endocardial brightness suggestive of endocardial fibroelastosis; and (C) with a large, noncontractile LV. LA, Left atrium; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricle.
Figure 2
Figure 2
RV ejection fraction (RVEF) in those with measurable left ventricles compared with those with absent left ventricles across the study time periods.

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