A review of syndromes associated with blue sclera, with inclusion of malformations of the head and neck

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2018 Sep;126(3):252-263. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2018.05.012. Epub 2018 May 31.


Blue sclera is attributed to a diversity of mechanisms, mostly arising in genetic syndromes and, to a lesser extent, in nongenetic disorders and may occur as a side effect of medication intake. A literature search was conducted to establish a database of blue scleral associations. This article represents the most comprehensive assemblage of etiopathologies coincidental with blue sclera, comprising 66 genetic syndromes, 8 disorders, and 4 pharmacologically induced pigmentations. To increase the knowledge regarding the clinical significance of blue sclera, summaries of the systemic and oral maxillofacial comorbidities are provided. Recognition of the presence of blue sclera is important as it could prompt a timelier and more thorough diagnostic evaluation of possible systemic and dental malformations, potentially improving clinical outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hyperpigmentation / etiology*
  • Maxillofacial Abnormalities / complications*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sclera / abnormalities*
  • Scleral Diseases / etiology*