A retrovirus highly related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was isolated from a T-cell line established from a seropositive pig-tailed monkey and the provirus genome was molecularly cloned using HTLV-I as a probe. The monkey virus (STLV) had the genomic structure of the LTR-gag-pol-env-pX-LTR. Analysis of the env-pX-LTR region revealed the 90% homology of the nucleotide sequence with that of HTLV-I in each region. This high homology of the sequence indicates that STLV is a member of the HTLV family, but apparently different from HTLV-I. This suggests that the possibility of recent interspecies transmission from monkeys to humans in the endemic area is very small. From its similarity to HTLV, STLV should be useful as an animal model in studies on natural HTLV infection and leukemogenesis of HTLV in humans.