Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is reported to promote NK cell differentiation and education. The CMV-induced generation of highly differentiated adaptive-like NK cells has been proposed to affect favorably on the maintenance of remission in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The impact of CMV infection and adaptive-like NK cells on relapse and survival of patients with AML not receiving allo-SCT remains unknown. We assayed CMV IgG serostatus to determine past CMV infection in 81 nontransplanted AML patients who were receiving relapse-prevention immunotherapy comprising histamine dihydrochloride and low-dose interleukin-2 (HDC/IL2; NCT01347996). CMV seropositivity correlated negatively with leukemia-free and overall survival of patients receiving HDC/IL2, but did not correlate with outcomes in a contemporary control cohort. Analysis of outcome after stratification of patients based on concordant or discordant killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and HLA genotypes implied that the negative impact of CMV seropositivity was restricted to patients lacking a ligand to inhibitory KIRs (iKIR). Previous CMV infection was also associated with fewer NK cells expressing only nonself iKIRs (NS-iKIR). We propose that CMV-driven NK cell education depletes the population of NS-iKIR NK cells, which in turn reduces the clinical benefit of relapse-preventive immunotherapy in AML. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(9); 1110-9. ©2018 AACR.
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.