We report the first case of an association between Leptotrichia trevisanii and an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the second case of the isolation of this infection in the cervical canal. A 45-yr-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with clinical and radiological signs and symptoms compatible with an episode of PID. She was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic control and treatment and the subsequent surgical drainage of abscesses. Cultures were taken throughout the process, but only cultures from cervical canal exudate were positive, with the growth of L. trevisanii species. It appears important to carry out a complete microbiological screening, not limited to conventional agents, on adequate clinical samples to detect possible infectious agents that may be missed in these cases.
Keywords: Emerging infection; Genital infection; Leptotrichia trevisani.