Plasma levels of the proangiogenic protein CXCL16 remains elevated for 1 month after minimally invasive colorectal cancer resection

World J Surg Oncol. 2018 Jul 7;16(1):132. doi: 10.1186/s12957-018-1418-2.


Background: Inflammation-induced endothelial precursor cell recruitment and angiogenesis are thought to be associated with CXCL16-CXCR6 pair activity. This study's main purpose was to determine plasma CXCL16 levels after minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR) for colorectal cancer (CRC); an adjunct study assessed wound fluid (WF) and plasma CXCL16 levels in a separate group of CRC patients.

Methods: CRC patients who had MICR and for whom plasma was available in a tissue bank were eligible. Plasma samples were collected preoperatively from all patients. Samples were also collected on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 3 and at various late postoperative time points (POD 7-34). In a separate study, blood and intra-abdominal wound fluid (WF) samples were collected from CRC MICR patients (pts). Samples were stored at - 80 °C. CXCL16 levels were determined via ELISA. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann and Whitney tests were used for analysis.

Results: Main study: 86 CRC pts. were included. The mean preoperative plasma CXCL16 level was 2.36 ± 0.57 ng/ml. Elevated mean plasma levels (p < 0.0001 × first 4 time points) were noted on POD 1 (2.82 ± 0.81, n = 86), POD 3 (3.12 ± 0.77, n = 82), POD 7-13 (3.28 ± 0.88, n = 64), POD 14-20 (3.03 ± 0.62, n = 24), POD 21-27 (3.06 ± 0.67, n = 20, p = 0.0003), and POD 28-34 (3.17 ± 0.43, n = 11, p = 0.001) vs. preop levels. WF study: In the adjunct study, plasma and WF CXCL16 levels were determined for 23 CRC MICR pts. WF levels at all time points were significantly elevated over plasma levels.

Conclusion: Plasma CXCL16 levels were elevated for 4 weeks after minimally invasive colorectal resection for cancer. Also, WF CXCL16 levels were 3-10 times greater than the corresponding plasma concentrations. The source of the late plasma elevations may be the healing wound. Increased plasma CXCL16 levels may promote tumor angiogenesis in the first month after MICR.

Keywords: CXCL16; Minimally invasive colorectal cancer resection.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Chemokine CXCL16* / metabolism
  • Colectomy
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies


  • CXCL16 protein, human
  • Chemokine CXCL16