Objectives: This study assessed MDR invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, in relation to serotype evolution in Canada between 2011 and 2015 as part of the annual SAVE study.
Methods: As part of a collaboration between the Canadian Antimicrobial Resistance Alliance and Public Health Agency of Canada-National Microbiology Laboratory, 6207 invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae were evaluated. All isolates were serotyped and had antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed, in accordance with CLSI guidelines (M07-A10, 2015). Complete susceptibility profiles were available for 6001 isolates. MDR was defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents (with penicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L defined as resistant).
Results: The overall rate of MDR S. pneumoniae was 6.2% (372/6001) in SAVE, decreasing significantly from 8.5% in 2011 to 5.6% in 2015 (P = 0.0041). MDR was observed in 32 serotypes, with serotypes 15A and 19A predominating (26.6% and 41.7% of the MDR isolates, respectively). The overall proportion of serotypes 19A, 7F and 33A decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) throughout the study. The annual proportion of serotypes 7C, 8, 9N, 10A, 20, 24F, 29, 31, 33F, 35B and 38 increased throughout the study; however, among these increasing serotypes, MDR was only notable (>5%) for 24F and 33F.
Conclusions: In 2015, 56.3% of invasive MDR S. pneumoniae were serotypes included in the PCV-13 vaccine. PCV-13 includes the most commonly identified serotype, 19A; however, other increasingly important MDR serotypes, such as 15A, 24F and 33F, are notably not in the currently used vaccines.