To explore the relationship among the level of fiber, gut microbiota, and nutritional substances, we applied the next generation sequencing technology for the identification of the composition and structure of microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a total of 25 phyla and 298 genera were identified from the gastrointestinal tract; Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. The ability of cecum in carbohydrate metabolism was significantly higher than that of the gizzard and ileum (P < 0.05). The bacterial community structure in various stages of the development of the cecum was different. In the different growth stages of cecum, the increase in the microbiota structure of the fiber level elevates the ability of carbon hydration. Second, the apparent metabolic rates of the other nutrients were affected by the fiber and period except for acid detergent fiber (P < 0.05); the apparent utilization rate of the nutrients increased with time. However, with the increase in the fiber level, the apparent utilization of nutrients was initially increased, followed by a decrease. Therefore, a correlation was established between the fiber level and gastrointestinal microbiota and apparent nutrient utilization rate of the 3 phyla. Our results suggest that the fiber level and growth stages could impact the composition of gut microbiota.