Modelling of pathological processes in cells is one of the most sought-after technologies of the 21st century. Using models of such processes may help to study the pathogenetic mechanisms of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyse the literature, dedicated to obtaining and investigating cybrid models. Besides, the possibility of modeling pathological processes in cells and treatment of different diseases using the models was evaluated. Methods of obtaining Rho0 cell cultures showed that, during their creation, mainly a standard technique, based on the use of mtDNA replication inhibitors (ethidium bromide), was applied. Cybrid lines were usually obtained by PEG fusion. Most frequently, platelets acted as donors of mitochondria. According to the analysis of the literature data, cybrid cell cultures can be modeled to study the dysfunction of the mitochondrial genome and molecular cellular pathological processes. Such models can be very promising for the development of therapeutic approaches to the treatment of various human diseases.